Gagne created a nine-step process for people to use when designing learning experiences with the goal of maximum engagement and retention. The steps are gain attention, inform learners of objectives, stimulate recall of prior learning, present stimulus, provide learner guidance, elicit performance, provide feedback, assess performance, and enhance retention and transfer.
Gamification is applying game principles to the design of a non-game experience, which may included adding game mechanics, such as scoring, leaderboards, and badging, to a program, product, or service in order to encourage participation.
Gap analysis is the process of looking at a business's current state and its future state and analyzing where there are issues or areas of opportunity that need to be addressed to reach goals, looking at areas such as operations, resources, finances, and roles.
In the ADDIE framework, implementation refers to the plan to release and communicate learning experiences with the intended learners. In technology projects, it refers to the execution of the plan to launch the technology.
An individual development plan is a plan created by an employee and their manager that outlines professional goals for the employee for a specific time period. The goals align with the organizational goals and are assessed after the time period.
Instructional design is the process of analyzing learning and performance gaps and creating, deploying, and measuring instructional and non-instructional learning opportunities to close gaps and encourage learning and performance improvement.
Instructional systems design was the original term for instructional design because of the systems approach taken to design and develop learning experiences. The term has been shortened to instructional design in most areas, but instructional systems design is still used in some industries, including in government and military.
According to the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning.
Kirkpatrick's Learning Evaluation Model includes four levels of training evaluation: reaction (measuring how learners felt about the experience), learning (measuring what was learned), behavior (measuring how people apply their learning), and results (measuring the learning against organizational outcomes).
A learning record store (LRS) is defined by the xAPI specification as "a server (i.e. system capable of receiving and processing web requests) that is responsible for receiving, storing, and providing access to Learning Records."
A learning experience platform is another, more modern term for a learning management system that aims to take the focus away from asset management and place it on the learner's experience in the software.
Originally from the manufacturing industry and then adopted by software development and learning and development, lean refers to the set of processes and principles that aims to maximize efficiency and reduce waste.
A learner journey looks at how the learner moves through a learning experience, including the time before they begin the experience to the activities that occur after the experience to apply and reinforce learning.
One of the most popular and well-known learning myths that is still taught in graduate education today, the learning styles theory states that people learn in one of three main ways: auditory (through listening), visual (through seeing images and graphic representations), through reading/writing, and kinesthetic (through manipulating objects or doing something "hands-on").
Created by a mother/daughter duo based on the work of Carl Jung, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality test used to divide people into extroversion or introversion, sensing or intuition, thinking or feeling, and judgement or perception. It's validity, dichotomy, reliability, and lack of objectivity have been repeatedly called into question over the years.
Mentoring is a reciprocal relationship between a more experienced person and lesser experienced person, where the more experienced person provides advice to the lesser experienced person for the purposes of achieving career goals and growth.
David Merrill spent time researching which principles were most common in instructional design theory and came up with what he deemed the first five principles of instruction where learning is promoted: 1. when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems, 2. when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge, 3. when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner, 4. when new knowledge is applied by the learner, and 5. when new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world.
A simulated digital environment that uses augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and social media mechanics to create a space for people to communicate and interact like they would in the real world.
Neuro linguistic programming is a pseudoscientific claim that posits there is a connection between neurological processes, language, and behavioral patterns learned through experience and that these can be changed to achieve specific goals in life.
Onboarding refers to welcoming and integrating a new employee to their organization.
Onboarding is also used in customer education to describe providing customers with basic knowledge of a product or service.